Entering the holding pattern


How soon before an assigned holding fix should you begin to slow to holding speed?



Answer: When an aircraft is three minutes or less from a clearance limit and a clearance beyond the fix has not been received the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction so that the aircraft will cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed.

Altitude MSL
Airspeed KIAS
MHA-6,000
200
6,001-14,000
230
14,000 and above
265





Fuel Dump Problems


Here are some easy techniques for calculating the time to dump fuel, or to calculate how much fuel has been dumped in flight.
These tend to be easier problems to work in your head because there are usually only three variables dump rate, time, and fuel dumped to use in the formula.
Fuel Dumped/ Dump Rate = Time
Dump Rate X Time= Fuel Dumped
Dump Rate
Time
Fuel Dumped
1,300 PPM
?
6,500 IBS
2,500 PPM
?
45,000 IBS
3,000 PPM
?
19,000 IBS
2,500 PPM
?
11,000 IBS
1,500 PPM
7 MIN
?
1,200 PPM
11 MIN
?
?
5 MIN
12,500 IBS
?
16 MIN
48,000 IBS
2,000 PPM
?
20,000 IBS




This is a strictly mathematical approach to that some can readily calculate in their head.






Ok let’s take a look on the correct answers from the previous table.
Dump Rate
Time
Fuel Dumped
1,300 PPM
5 MIN
6,500 IBS
2,500 PPM
18 MIN
45,000 IBS
3,000 PPM
6 MIN 20 SEC
19,000 IBS
2,500 PPM
12 MIN
11,000 IBS
1,500 PPM
7 MIN
10,500 IBS
1,200 PPM
11 MIN
13,200 IBS
2,500 PPM
5 MIN
12,500 IBS
3,000 PPM
16 MIN
48,000 IBS
2,000 PPM
10 MIN
20,000 IBS


Time/Speed/Distance.


Ok let’s take a look on some easy techniques for simplifying problems with multiple equations involved such as in the time, speed, and distance problem.
First remember that there will be only four variables in the formula, and the interviewer will need to give you three of them.
The four variables are wind, distance, time, and true airspeed.
The basic time-speed-distance formula is this.
(GS) X (Time) = (Distance)
Remember every 30 knots equals 5 miles/minute or 60 knots equals 1mile/minute.
So if you have a speed of 480 knots, you travel 8 miles/minute.
Ground Speed Knots
Miles per minute
60
1
90
1.5
120
2
150
2.5
180
3
210
3.5
240
4
270
4.5
300
5
330
5.5
360
6
390
6.5
420
7
450
7.5
480
8
510
8.5
540
9


No wind factor involved, if it’s not given to you, you can assume it to be zero.
If you are given TAS, and want to find the Ground speed, you use this formula.
TAS plus/minus Wind = GS

Ok let’s practice this with some examples.
KTAS
WIND
TIME
DISTANCE
240
60 TW
?
200 NM
280
70 HW
10 MIN
?
150
0
?
5 NM
?
0
4 MIN
20 NM
420
60 TW
?
400 NM
?
0
2 MIN
14 NM
?
0
1.5 hr
600 NM
500
0
45 MIN
?
?
0
40 MIN
340 NM

Calculate the examples and fill in the blanks.
Here it is good to use the technique of converting the ground speed to miles per minute to make the problem solving easier during the interview.
It is important to keep it as simple as possible since you probably not are allowed to use calculator or, pen and paper.
When you are given the ground speed or can figure it out from the true airspeeds and winds, convert it to nautical miles per minute.
Example 350 knots GS= 360 divided by 60 = 6 miles per minute
You can then more easily multiply these nautical miles per minute by the number of minutes to get the distance traveled.  10 @ 6 nmpm = 60 miles
Or you can divide the distance by the nautical miles per minute to figure the number of minutes
90 miles @ 6nmpm = 15 minutes


Here are the answers from the previous task.
KTAS
WIND
TIME
DISTANCE
240
60 TW
40 MIN
200 NM
280
70 HW
10 MIN
35 NM
150
0
2 MIN
5 NM
300
0
4 MIN
20 NM
420
60 TW
50 MIN
400 NM
420
0
2 MIN
14 NM
400
0
1.5 HR
600 NM
500
0
45 MIN
375 NM
510
0
40 MIN
340 NM

Notice that the last three problems are easier to solve using an approach of proportions.
1,5 hour is three segments of 0,5 hour, and that 600 NM is three segments of 200 NM, then you realize that you travel 200 NM per half hour or 400 NM per hour = 400 knots ground speed.





What radio calls are required under IFR in a radar environment?

What radio calls are required under IFR in a radar environment?

1.     Time and altitude at each designated reporting point. When in radar contact, only those requested by ATC
2.     Any unforecast weather.
3.     Any information regarding safety of flight.
4.     Any malfunction of navigational, approach, or communication equipment.
5.     For holding, the time and altitude reaching and leaving the clearance limit.

6.     Read back altitudes, altitude restrictions, and vectors (headings).